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Manovich and Castells have argued that whereas mass media "corresponded to the logic of industrial mass society, which values conformity over individuality," new media follows the logic of the postindustrial or globalized society whereby "every citizen can construct her own custom lifestyle and select her ideology from a large number of choices. Rather than pushing the same objects to a mass audience, marketing now tries to target each individual separately".
Social movement media has a rich and storied history (see Agitprop) that has changed at a rapid rate since new media became widely used. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation of Chiapas, Mexico were the first major movement to make widely recognized and effective use of new media for communiques and organizing in 1994. Since then, new media has been used extensively by social movements to educate, organize, share cultural products of movements, communicate, coalition build, and more. The WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 protest activity was another landmark in the use of new media as a tool for social change. The WTO protests used media to organize the original action, communicate with and educate participants, and was used as an alternative media source. The Indymedia movement also developed out of this action, and has been a great tool in the democratization of information, which is another widely discussed aspect of new media movement. Some scholars even view this democratization as an indication of the creation of a "radical, socio-technical paradigm to challenge the dominant, neoliberal and technologically determinist model of information and communication technologies." A less radical view along these same lines is that people are taking advantage of the Internet to produce a grassroots globalization, one that is anti-neoliberal and centered on people rather than the flow of capital. Chanelle Adams, a feminist blogger for the Bi-Weekly webpaper The Media says that in her "commitment to anti-oppressive feminist work, it seems obligatory for her to stay in the know just to remain relevant to the struggle." In order for Adams and other feminists who work towards spreading their messages to the public, new media becomes crucial towards completing this task, allowing people to access a movement's information instantaneously.
The new media industry shares an open association with many market segments in areas such as software/video game design, television, radio, mobile and particularly movies, advertising and marketing, through which industry seeks to gain from the advantages of two-way dialogue with consumers primarily through the Internet. As a device to source the ideas, concepts, and intellectual properties of the general public, the television industry has used new media and the Internet to expand its resources for new programming and content. The advertising industry has also capitalized on the proliferation of new media with large agencies running multimillion-dollar interactive advertising subsidiaries. Interactive websites and kiosks have become popular. In a number of cases advertising agencies have also set up new divisions to study new media. Public relations firms are also taking advantage of the opportunities in new media through interactive PR practices. Interactive PR practices include the use of social media to reach a mass audience of online social network users.
This early form of branded content worked well because the entertainment media were oligopolies, so cultural competition was limited. In the United States, three networks produced television programming for 30 weeks or so every year and then went into reruns. Films were distributed only through local movie theaters; similarly, magazine competition was restricted to what fit on the shelves at drugstores. Consumer marketing companies could buy their way to fame by paying to place their brands in this tightly controlled cultural arena.
Or consider Red Bull, the most lauded branded-content success story. It has become a new-media hub producing extreme- and alternative-sports content. While Red Bull spends much of its $2 billion annual marketing budget on branded content, its YouTube channel (rank #184, 4.9 million subscribers) is lapped by dozens of crowdculture start-ups with production budgets under $100,000. Indeed, Dude Perfect (#81, 8 million subscribers), the brainchild of five college jocks from Texas who make videos of trick shots and goofy improvised athletic feats, does far better.
A total of 22 papers were included in the review. Several major themes were identified about how and why Indigenous young people use social media: identity, power and control, cultural compatibility and community and family connections. Examples of marketing for health and health promotion approaches that utilize social media and digital technologies were identified. Negative uses of social media such as cyber bullying, cyber racism and the exchange of sexually explicit content between minors are common with limited approaches to dealing with this at the community level.
Many Indigenous Australians have utilised the Internet from its early days [13, 14], despite the economic, social, cultural and geographic factors that can affect their access. With increasing access and use of social media, understanding its use and impacts among Indigenous young people could contribute to both interventions and to monitoring and evaluation of programs. Media and social marketing have long been part of health promotion related interventions and there is evidence that such interventions can work with a range of target groups, in different settings, and can work upstream as well as with individuals . In the same way, social media is now commonly proposed as part of interventions. However, it is essential to understand how a target group uses and responds to a technology in order to use if effectively, and to ensure that any proposed use is appropriate and does not lead to adverse effects. This paper explores published literature on the ways in which social media is used by and for young Indigenous Australians, acknowledging their diversity, and with a view to positive and negative impacts and how this potentially impacts health and health promotion approaches.
One reason why many Indigenous young people have embraced social media is its self-directed nature where users can produce their own unregulated content. Indigenous young people can participate and use social media without any control or input from adults or from the non-Indigenous community that controls the larger, more conventional media forms [13, 14, 17]. This self-directed nature also means that Indigenous young people can seek out information for themselves, enabling new forms of agency [18, 21] . Some health programs aim to harness this self-driven ability to access resources, as is discussed in the section on social marketing and health promotion. Indigenous activists have extended their efforts beyond listserves and blogs to utilise social networking sites to make their struggle known to a wide audience as part of their social movement .
There were several reports describing use of social media for the marketing of health and the reader is referred to a recent review of peer-reviewed literature which specifically looked at the evidence for social media and mobile technologies used in health promotion, intervention, self-management and health service delivery with regard to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media . The No Smokes campaign utilizes multimedia and involves an interactive anti-smoking website targeting Indigenous young people. It was developed using input from Indigenous young people about what attracts them to a message and to ensure that the information was delivered in culturally accessible ways . This research shaped the media focused nature of No Smokes because Indigenous young people expressed that they are more drawn to multimedia, video, social networking, animation, music and mobile phones than traditional anti-smoking marketing campaigns. These multimedia forms are more widely accessible because they minimize language and literacy barriers [13, 14, 27]. 2b1af7f3a8